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Lemon is rich in citric acid which boosts the fat-burning process, speeds up the metabolism, and suppresses appetite. Furthermore, citric acid stimulates the secretion of gastric acid which improves digestion. Lemon peel is abundant in pectin which can regulate the blood sugar levels.

Numerous nutritionists and dietitians claim that lemon contains the essential nutrients the body needs to break up fat and promote weight loss.

Lemon contains high amount of vitamin C which strengthens the immune system.

Additionally, lemon can cleanse your body from toxins, cleanse the blood and lymph and protect you from disease.

This diet will help you lose 10kg and eliminate the excess fat. All you need to do is consume the following amounts of lemon juice mixed with water, in the morning before breakfast. Add one tablespoon of honey and drink the resulting mixture throughout the day.

Day 1: juice of 1 lemon mixed with 1 glass of fresh water.

Day 2: juice of 2 lemons mixed with 2 glasses of fresh water.

Day 3: juice of 3 lemons mixed with 3 glasses of fresh water.

Day 4: juice of 4 lemons mixed with 4 glasses of fresh water.

Day 5: juice of 5 lemons mixed with 5 glasses of fresh water.

Day 6: juice of 6 lemons mixed with 6 glasses of fresh water.

Day 7: juice of 3 lemons mixed with 10 glasses of fresh water.

Day 8: juice of 6 lemons mixed with 6 glasses of fresh water.

Day 9: juice of 5 lemons mixed with 5 glasses of fresh water.

Day 10: juice of 4 lemons mixed with 4 glasses of fresh water.

Day 11: juice of 3 lemons mixed with 3 glasses of fresh water.

Day 12: juice of 2 lemons mixed with 2 glasses of fresh water.

Day 13: juice of 1 lemon mixed with 1 glass of fresh water.

Day 14: juice of 3 lemons mixed with 10 glasses of fresh water.

Add one tablespoon of honey and drink the resulting beverage throughout the day.

TIP: Wash your oral cavity immediately after consuming the lemon water to protect your tooth enamel from the lemon acids.

Note: If you are not able to drink the mixture all at once, you should drink as much as you can and leave the rest for later. However, you need to consume it at least 1 hour before meal.

People with gastrointestinal problems should avoid this diet.

It is also recommended that you stick to low calorie intake in order to obtain better results.

Avoid overeating, pasta white bread and pastries. Also, try to avoid carbonated beverages, juices with artificial sweeteners, alcohol, snacks, chips, candies, etc.



Good manners depict proper and polite behavior, but many people believe this is an unrealistic protocol. However, these rules are very simple and they include proper speech and vocabulary, restraining emotions, neat and clean appearance and common courtesy.

These 15 rules are the most important and should be followed by everyone

1.When you are walking with another person who greets someone with Hello, you should greet that other person too even if you have never seen them before.

2.Don’t put your phone or tablet on the table when you are out because it indicates that you are bored and not interested in the meeting. Checking your Facebook account for example could offend the person you are sitting with.

3.You are not obliged to eat sushi with chopsticks; if you are a man you can use your hands.

4.Don’t ask someone out if you plan to spend the whole evening calling or texting someone.

5.Always thank people when they help you with something. This way you show appreciation and that you are not taking them for granted.

6.Ladies you should never let your man carry your purse, and men you should always take your lady’s coat to the cloakroom.

7.Answer your phone only when it is important and avoid having empty conversations over the phone. If you need to talk to someone, wait until you meet them in person if it is not an emergency.

8.Staring at people is extremely rude as well as laughing and talking too loud.

9.If you are a driver, always be careful not to splash pedestrians with water.

10.When at the cinema, concert hall or theater, when walking to your seat make sure you face the people you pass on your way.

11.If you made a mistake, apologized and your apology was accepted, you should never repeat the same mistake again.

12.Polite men will show respect to all women equally.

13.Nine things about yourself that you should keep a secret: age, religion, disgrace, honor, affairs, wealth, medical issues, gifts and family quarrels.

14.Being the only one who follows a certain trend may cause you to look ridiculous no matter how good you think you look.

15.Always greet everyone when you enter a room regardless of your status, age or profession.

These rules were made with a goal to make the world a better place. They can be hard sometimes and they take time to become a habit, however they will be of great importance for your appearance and they make an excellent personality trait. Good manners are never out of style.



Perfectly shaped breasts are a dream for every woman. However, as women age, the breasts start sagging and lose their elasticity do this to get a perfectly perky breasts. Fortunately, there are numerous things you should do to tone and make your breasts firmer. This includes regular exercise, healthy diet, and proper body care. So, in order to regain the firmness of saggy breasts, you should:

  • drink plenty of water
  • massage the breasts with pomegranate oil and Aloe Vera
  • maintain an optimal weight



There are several exercises which can help you firm the breasts. The following exercises are extremely beneficial. They will shape the breasts, reduce the excess fat deposits, and strengthen the pectoral muscles located under the breasts.


In order to perform this powerful exercise, you should lie down on your stomach on the floor. Then, push your body up with your arms. Make sure your back is straight throughout the whole exercise. Get into plank position and then lower the body. Continue pushing your body up. You should exhale as you push back to the starting position.

Note: Your body should remain in a straight line from head to toe.

Chest Press

You should lie down on a flat bench with a dumbbell in each hand resting on top of your thighs. Then, extend your arms and hold for 10 seconds. Make sure you push the dumbbells up so that your arms are directly over your shoulders and your palms are up. Next, lower the dumbbells down until your elbows are slightly below your shoulders.

Arm Raise

This is a quite simple exercise. All you should do is stand with your feet apart and reach straight up.


This is another great way to make your breasts firm and toned.

Egg and Vitamin E Oil Breast Mask


  • 1 egg
  • 1 tablespoon of Vitamin E oil
  • 1 tablespoon of plain yogurt


Mix all the ingredients well until you get a thick paste. Then, apply it on your breasts with a gentle massage. Leave it for 30 minutes and then rinse it off with cold water.


Additionally, you can use various ingredients to perform a massage on your breasts. Therefore, you can use a few ice cubes, coconut oil, vegetable or olive oil, and other essential oils. You have to practice doing the massages 2-3 times a week.

Hope you enjoyed and learn a way how to Get a Perfectly Perky Breasts.

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Relive ASOT 900 – VIDEO SETS

ASOT 900 Utrecht 2019
ASOT 900 Utrecht 2019

Astronomers Capture First Image of a Black Hole

Scientists have obtained the first image of a black hole, using Event Horizon Telescope observations of the center of the galaxy M87. The image shows a bright ring formed as light bends in the intense gravity around a black hole that is 6.5 billion times more massive than the Sun. This long-sought image provides the strongest evidence to date for the existence of supermassive black holes and opens a new window onto the study of black holes, their event horizons, and gravity. Credit: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

An international collaboration presents paradigm-shifting observations of the gargantuan black hole at the heart of distant galaxy Messier 87

On April 10, 2019, scientists from the Event Horizon Telescope announced a result that will change our understanding of the universe: the first-ever image of a black hole’s event horizon, the point at which light can no longer escape the black hole’s gravitational pull. Using linked telescopes from around the globe, EHT’s team measured the ring of photons circling the black hole at the center of galaxy Messier 87, 55 million light-years from Earth. The observations further confirm Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

“We have taken the first picture of a black hole,” said EHT project director Sheperd S. Doeleman of the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian. “This is an extraordinary scientific feat accomplished by a team of more than 200 researchers.”

Black holes are extraordinary cosmic objects with enormous masses but extremely compact sizes. The presence of these objects affects their environment in extreme ways, warping spacetime and super-heating any surrounding material.

“If immersed in a bright region, like a disc of glowing gas, we expect a black hole to create a dark region similar to a shadow — something predicted by Einstein’s general relativity that we’ve never seen before, explained chair of the EHT Science Council Heino Falcke of Radboud University, the Netherlands. “This shadow, caused by the gravitational bending and capture of light by the event horizon, reveals a lot about the nature of these fascinating objects and allowed us to measure the enormous mass of M87’s black hole.”

“We have achieved something presumed to be impossible just a generation ago,” concluded Doeleman. “Breakthroughs in technology, connections between the world’s best radio observatories, and innovative algorithms all came together to open an entirely new window on black holes and the event horizon.”

Spectacular Video of Solar ‘Eclipses’ on Mars Prove Just How Special Ours Are on Earth

Spectacular Video of Solar 'Eclipses'
Spectacular Video of Solar 'Eclipses'

Just because the Mars rovers are all the way over on the Red Planet, that doesn’t mean they don’t get to enjoy a bit of eclipse fun. And with two moons on rapid orbits, Mars sees a lot of eclipses.

Now NASA’s Curiosity rover has sent home videos of Martian moons Phobos and Deimos (Fear and Dread, how badass is that) “eclipsing” the Sun.

Technically, they’re not full eclipses, since neither moon completely covers the Sun, like the Moon does during total Solar eclipses on Earth (more on that in a moment). An eclipse where the object is completely in front of the Sun, but doesn’t cover it, leaving a ring of visible Sun, is instead called an annular eclipse.

There could be a little bit of debate about whether they’re even annular eclipses, since they cover so little of the Sun. The events seem sort of halfway between a planetary transit – such as when Venus moves across the face of the Sun – and an annular eclipse.

deimos transit

Tiny Deimos! (NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS)

Depending on your vantage point, you stand to observe quite a few. The Moon orbits Earth every 27 days, right? Well, Deimos orbits Mars every 30.3 hours. For Phobos, it’s just 7.65 hours.

Opportunity (may she rest in peace) caught six Phobos transits and two Deimos transits in 2004 from the Meridiani Planum. So Curiosity was sent up with special solar filters on its Mastcam specifically for snapping the Sun.

So why don’t the moons cover the Sun? Well, that’s not just a product of size, but distance. Our Moon is about 400 times smaller than the Sun, but it’s also about 400 times closer – so in the Sky that means they appear more or less the same size.

That does vary a little, since the orbits of the Moon around Earth and Earth around the Sun are both elliptical. When the Moon is at its farthest from Earth, it appears a little smaller – that’s how we get annular eclipses on Earth. When it’s closer to Earth, it appears bigger, and can cover more of the Sun’s disc.

This is just a really neat coincidence that we happened to be just in time for – the Moon is actually moving away from Earth at a rate of around  3.82 centimetres (1.5 inches) a year. Another 600 million years and it’ll appear too small for total eclipses – if we’re around to see them.

The Martian eclipses highlight just how unusual Earth is, but they’re also pretty useful for understanding Phobos and Deimos, and their tight orbits around Mars.

“More observations over time help pin down the details of each orbit,” said planetary scientist Mark Lemmon of Texas A&M University. “Those orbits change all the time in response to the gravitational pull of Mars, Jupiter or even each Martian moon pulling on the other.”

In total, Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity have collectively observed eight Deimos eclipses, and around 40 from Phobos.

The best camera phone in 2019

The best camera phone in 2019
The best camera phone in 2019

Choosing the best camera phone can be an arduous task. Camera phone technology has improved in the last few years. It has finally comes to the point that phones are  no longer shirked by photographers but positively embraced as camera alternatives.

Whether it’s lens and sensor quality, or the features on show, flagship smartphones are now matching compacts in the quality stakes. And as you will read, they are starting to give DSLRs a run for their money too – especially with so many brilliant camera deals flying around.

UPDATE: We have a new camera phone king. After impressing us in its hands-on review, now we have had the Huawei P30 Pro in for testing we can reveal that it has nabbed the top spot. The phone is currently best in class for zooming, low-light performance and all-round picture quality. 

Our top pick for the best camera phone right now is the Huawei P30 Pro. It was a tough fight but the P30 Pro beat the Google Pixel 3 in our low-light photography tests and has the best zoom we have ever seen on a phone.  

At the moment, there are a number of camera phones that are simply superb, though, with the differences between the likes of the Huawei P30 Pro, Google Pixel 3, Huawei Mate 20 Pro and the iPhone XS pretty negligible. 

In short: it’s a brilliant time to buy a phone for its camera capabilities.

And if you’re interested in other clever uses of camera tech, check out our guide to the best dash cams on the market. 

1. Huawei P30 Pro

Simply the best camera phone around

Release date: April 2019 | Rear cameras: 40MP (Wide Angle Lens, f/1.6, OIS), 20MP (Ultra Wide Angle Lens, f/2.2), 8MP (Telephoto, f/3.4, OIS) | Front camera: 32MP | OIS: Yes | Weight: 192 g | Dimensions: 158 x 73.4 x 8.4 mm | Storage: 128/256/512 GB€1,044.70VIEW AT AMAZON GERMANY€1,044.90View at Amazon Germany£899.99View at AmazonSee all prices (3 found)?Best in class zoomSuperb low-light photographyGreat manual controlScreen is just 1080pPro mode could be better

Best Camera Phone: There is a lot to love about the P30 Pro – it’s a camera phone that has it all: superb low-light photography, unbelievable zoom capabilities (5x optical) and powerful specs. It’s been given four lenses on its rear, one of which is a ToF sensor. This means that its depth sensing is also fantastic. While we would have preferred a better screen and the price to be a little cheaper, this is the best camera phone around right now.

2. Google Pixel 3

One of the best Android cameras – especially for low light

Release date: October 2018 | Rear camera: 12.2 MP | Front camera: 8 MP, f/1.8, 28mm (wide), PDAF, 8 MP, f/2.2, 19mm (ultrawide) | OIS: Yes | Rear camera aperture: f/1.8, 28mm | Weight: 148 g | Dimensions: 145.6 x 68.2 x 7.9 mm | Storage: 64/128 GB€779.47VIEW AT AMAZON SPAIN€810.69View at Amazon Germany€832.43View at Amazon ItalySee all prices (25 found)?Brilliant zoomSuperb night modeOodles of manual controlOnly one lensA bit too much reliance of software

Fantastic Night mode: The Google Pixel 3 has been a revelation in the camera phone stakes. Like its predecessors, it uses just one lens on the back. But the image results are fantastic. When we first tested the Google Pixel 3 against the Huawei Mate 20 Pro, we put the Mate 20 Pro in front. But the new Night Mode, which offers up stunning pictures in the low light, means that the Google Pixel 3 is a fantastic camera phone.

3. Huawei Mate 20 Pro

Fantastic new addition to the camera phone crowd.

Release date: October 2018 | Rear camera: 40MP/20MP/8MP | Front camera: 24 MP | OIS: Yes | Rear camera aperture: f/1.8 + f/2.4 | Weight: 174g | Dimensions: 57.8 x 72.3 x 8.6 mm | Storage: 128/256GB€599VIEW AT AMAZON GERMANY€633.21View at Amazon Italy€755View at Amazon SpainSee all prices (29 found)?Superb Leica lensesThe best portrait mode on a phonePowerful pro featuresNo monochrome lensPost production is a bit much

Best for portraits: The bigger (literally) brother to the P20 Pro, the Huawei Mate 20 Pro may have a slightly different lens setup (no monochrome lens this time around) but it’s still a powerhouse in the camera department. The Mate 20 Pro has three (count ’em) lenses on the back, offering super-wide angle and macro shots. But it’s the portrait mode that impresses us the most – the bokeh effect you get from the camera is one of the best we’ve seen. 

4. Honor View 20

A 48MP sensor is the icing on what is a superb imaging cake.

Release date: January 2019 | Rear camera: 48 MP | Front camera: 25 MP, f/2.0, 27mm | Rear camera aperture: f/1.8 TOF 3D stereo camera | Weight: 180g | Dimensions: 156.9 x 75.4 x 8.1mm | Storage: 256GB/128GB€469.99VIEW AT AMAZON GERMANY€495View at Amazon Germany€530View at Amazon GermanySee all prices (9 found)?Fantastic photography for a mid-range cameraSuperb build qualityPin-hole front camera works wellNo wireless chargingLack of waterproofingNo in-screen fingerprint unlock

The best mid-price camera phone. The Honor View 20 is a remarkable camera phone for its price. Its 48MP sensor is best in market and also comes packing an All-View screen. This essentially means that there is no notch and the only thing that marks the screen is a pin-hole camera situated on the top left of the device. 

The images we got from this device were superb – it uses a similar sort of AI found on both the Huawei Pro 20 and Huawei Mate 20 Pro (Honor is a subsidiary of Huawei) and this means that each and every shot you take has some sort of enhancements. 

Those who want to do things manually can head to the Pro mode as there’s a decent amount of control to be found there. 

5. iPhone XS

Tied to Apple? The iPhone XS is a fantastic camera phone

Release date: October 2018 | Rear camera: Dual 12MP wide-angle and telephoto cameras | Front camera: 7MP | OIS: Yes | Rear camera aperture: f/1.8 + f/2.4 | Weight: 174g | Dimensions: 143.6 x 70.9 x 7.7 mm | Storage: 64/256GB€329VIEW AT AMAZON GERMANY€731.61View at Amazon Spain€809.64View at Amazon ItalySee all prices (50 found)?Great Portrait modeSpectacular for selfiesCan oversaturateExpensive

The best top-range camera phone: We don’t necessarily think the extra money spent on an iPhone XS gives a better camera experience, but it does offer you the best iPhone that’s ever been made. The X was a marked change for the company and while the iPhone XS doesn’t look any different, it still offers a full screen 5.8-inch device that looks futuristic when you hold it in your hand, its camera software has been greatly enhanced.

The camera is a powerful dual 12MP shooter with one sporting f/1.8 and the other f/2.4 that both pack optical image stabilization to offer some impressive shots. We found the colors to be natural, and the fact one is a telephoto sensor helps for shooting detail at a further distance than most other phones on the market.

There’s a new sensor, too, which measures 1.4µm and thanks to the new chipset it is now double the speed of its predecessor and has two new features: Smart HDR and Depth Control.

6. Samsung Galaxy S9 Plus

This was our favorite camera phone until very recently. But it is still great!

Release date: March 2018 | Rear camera: 12MP + 12MP | Front camera: 8MP | OIS: Yes | Rear camera aperture: f/1.5 + f/2.4 | Weight: 189g | Dimensions: 158.1 x 73.8 x 8.5 mm | Storage: 64/128/256GB£485VIEW AT AMAZON£493View at Amazon£499View at AmazonSee all prices (130 found)?Fantastic auto modePacked full of featuresExpensiveAR Emoji isn’t for everyone

A superb camera phone: The Samsung Galaxy Note 9 Plus is a camera phone that is actually one of the best phones that money can buy right now too. This is the first time Samsung has embraced dual camera tech, and it uses two 12MP sensors paired together.

The main sensor is particularly impressive with an aperture of f/1.5, and that does make for some incredible low-light photography so you can shoot at night. There’s also an impressive bokeh mode for portrait shots. That paired with great video recording, slow motion and AR emoji makes this our very favourite smartphone for photography.

7. OnePlus 6T

A mid-range camera phone that utterly delivers

Release date: May 2018 | Rear camera: 16MP + 20MP | Front camera: 16MP | IS: Yes (one sensor) | Rear camera aperture: f/1.7 + f/1.7 | Weight: 177g | Dimensions: 155.7 x 75.4 x 7.8 mm | Storage: 128/256GB€234.66VIEW AT AMAZON GERMANY€462.35View at Amazon Spain€676.95View at Amazon ItalySee all prices (31 found)?Cheaper than phones aboveAll-round solid shooterGreat updated night modeLimited UIMediocre zoom

The best ‘value for money’ camera phone: With two rear cameras (16MP and 20MP) sporting an impressive f/1.7 aperture each, it already sounds rock solid. OnePlus has also increased the pixel size on the main 16MP shooter too up 19% from the OnePlus 5T – that’s now 1.22um, which means it’s better than ever at low-light shooting.

There’s both OIS and EIS working on the rear 16MP shooter as well as slow motion video recording at 480 frames per second. OnePlus has also improved the night mode on the OnePlus 6T making this the most accomplished OnePlus camera ever. It’s up there with some of the best, and the price of the OnePlus 6T makes this a must-have for those mindful of budget.

8. Moto G6 Plus

The best cheap camera phone you can get right now

Release date: May 2018 | Rear camera: 12MP + 5MP | Front camera: 8MP | OIS: No | Rear camera aperture: f/1.7 + f/2.2 | Weight: 167g | Dimensions: 160 x 75.5 x 8 mm | Storage: 64/128GB€208.81VIEW AT AMAZON GERMANY€211View at Amazon Spain€220View at Amazon ItalySee all prices (6 found)?Most affordableSolid camera specLimited video recordingPoor zoom

The best cheap camera phone: Is your budget more limited? The Moto G6 Plus isn’t going to blow you away with the photos it can take like some of the other phones in this list, but it is a very affordable device at £240 or less and it sports a dual-rear camera.

It’s a 12MP sensor (f/1.7 aperture) paired with a 5MP depth sensor that allows for a bokeh effect Portrait mode on one of the most affordable devices we’ve ever tested. It’s not for everyone, but if you’re looking for the best photography you can get on a budget device we’d recommend this option from Motorola.

9. Samsung Galaxy Note 9

The best camera phone in the world again, just repackaged

Release date: August 2018 | Rear camera: 12MP + 12MP | Front camera: 8MP | OIS: Yes | Rear camera aperture: f/1.5 + f/2.4 | Weight: 201g | Dimensions: 161.9 x 76.4 x 8.8 mm | Storage: 128/512GB€627VIEW AT AMAZON ITALY€645View at Amazon Germany€659View at Amazon ItalySee all prices (141 found)?Same camera as S9 PlusTop-end deviceExpensiveNot built for everyone

The best Samsung camera phone: This is very much the same camera as the Galaxy S9 Plus, but here there are a couple of little software tweaks that makes it a touch easier to use. We chose the Galaxy S9 Plus as our number one phone in this list as it’s a bit cheaper, but if you want an S Pen and this powerful shooter you can get it with the Note 9.

You may prefer the design of the Note 9 and really want those minor software tweaks, and if you do you’ll continue to get that impressive low-light specializing camera that can shoot some phenomenal images even in its automatic mode.

10. iPhone 8 Plus

A great option for front-facing shooting

Release date: September 2017 | Rear camera: 12MP + 12MP | Front camera: 7MP | OIS: Yes | Rear camera aperture: f/1.8 + f/2.8 | Weight: 202g | Dimensions: 158.4 x 78.1 x 7.5 mm | Storage: 64/256GB€735.18VIEW AT AMAZON SPAIN€743.90View at Amazon Germany€781.30View at Amazon ItalySee all prices (79 found)?Great for selfie shootingEasy to useExpensiveAnimoji isn’t for everyone

The best camera phone for selfies: Apple’s second phone on this list, the iPhone 8 Plus is a great option if you want to be taking front-facing selfie shots. It may only be a 7MP f/2.2 shooter, but Apple’s image processing is notable here and can create great shots of your face,

Our favourite part is the Portrait mode that is already good at including a bokeh effect, but there’s a new feature called Portrait Lighting that’s enormous fun. It allows you to give the effect that changes the lighting of the shot entirely meaning you can make the whole background black to just focus on your face. Plus there are lots more features like Animoji and panoramic shots for you to play with.

Einstein Gates Proven Right Again by New Study

Einstein Gates Proven Right Again by New Study
Einstein Gates Proven Right Again by New Study

Lorentz symmetry is a principle that states how everything in the universe should be assumed symmetrical and that any scientist should apply these same laws to any situation as long as the object in question is moving at a constant speed. 

The problem is that the same rules may not apply to everyone, particularly for tiny objects that operate over universe-spanning distances at ridiculously high energies. It is these extreme circumstances that a Lorentz violation may occur in which an undetermined field modifies the behavior of these objects in such a way that Einstein wouldn’t have predicted.

Scientists have long been trying to prove the existence of the Lorentz violation for a long time. But as of yet, there have been no definitive results. One place physicists believe it may exist is in neutrinos, the Universe’s lightest known particles. However, if they were to prove the Lorentz violation exists it would be a completely new law of physics that is unexplainable using Einstein’s theory.

To try and prove this phenomenon does exist in neutrinos, MIT scientists and colleaguesput together the IceCube Experiment. This project involved analyzing two years worth of data gathered by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in search for variations in the neutrinos oscillation patterns. 

After careful analysis, there was no such abnormality found among the data, and therefore, they have concluded there is no Lorentz violation in neutrinos. These results were published earlier this month in Nature Physics. They also presented evidence that neutrinos do in fact behave just as predicted by Einstein’s theory.

There are three main varieties (flavors) of neutrinos: electron, muon, and tau. Neutrinos can oscillate their flavor and morph into another. Typically, the way in which a neutrino oscillates depends on how far it’s traveled or its mass. But, if a Lorentz-violating field does exist somewhere, it could communicate with passing neutrinos and affect their oscillations as a result. 

As a way of testing if the Lorentz violation could be found in neutrinos data from the IceCube Observatory was gathered and analyzed. The neutrino detector here consists of more than 5,000 light sensors, all of which are attached to strings which are frozen into several boreholes and splayed over a cubic kilometer of ice in the Antarctic. 

Neutrinos that stream through Earth and space can interact with the ice in the detector. As it does so, muons are produced. As muons travel through ice, they emit light which produces long tracks ideal for going through the whole detector. With that recorded light on board, scientists can work out the trajectory and estimate the muon’s energy level. With this, they can backtrack to calculate the expected oscillation of the original neutrino.

During the study, the team looked in the highest-energy neutrinos in the search for the Lorentz violation. “Neutrino oscillations are a natural interferometer,” explains Teppei Katori, one of the leaders of the study and a particle physics lecturer at Queen Mary University of London. “Neutrino oscillations observed with IceCube act as the biggest interferometer in the world to look for the tiniest effects such as space-time deficit.”

The team searched through more than 35,000 interactions that traveled in a two year period between the detector and a muon neutrino. If a Lorentz violating field were to exist the researchers assumed it would produce an abnormal pattern of oscillations in the neutrinos, which would become more significant as the energy increased. 

In comparing the deviation in the energy spectrum the researchers expected to see with that of the real results IceCube they found no real difference. “We were looking to see if a Lorentz violation caused a deviation, and we didn’t see it,” says Conrad. “This closes the book on the possibility of Lorentz violation for a range of high-energy neutrinos, for a very long time.”

Moving forward, the team is planning to continue searching for the Lorentz violation. Their next move is to look in even higher-energy neutrinos. At the moment, scientists are still a little unsure of how neutrinos behave, including their normal oscillation patterns. Once this has been determined, Conrad and his team will have a much better chance at finding patterns that steer away from the norm.


Time Warp 2019 Live
Time Warp 2019 Live